K-means Clustering and its real use-case in the Security Domain
What is K-means Clustering?
K-means clustering is one of the simplest and popular unsupervised machine learning algorithms.
Clustering is the task of dividing the population or data points into a number of groups such that data points in the same groups are more similar to other data points in the same group than those in other groups. in simple words, the aim is to segregate groups with similar traits and assign them into clusters. The goal of the k-means algorithm is to find groups in the data.
How does k-means clustering work?
The k-means clustering algorithm attempts to split a given anonymous data set (a set containing no information as to class identity) into a fixed number (k) of clusters.
Initially k number of so called centroids are chosen. A centroid is a data point (imaginary or real) at the center of a cluster. In fact each centroid is an existing data point in the given input data set, picked at random, such that all centroids are unique (that is, for all centroids ci and cj, ci ≠ cj). These centroids are used to train a KNN Classifier. The resulting classifier is used to classify (using k = 1) the data and thereby produce an initial randomized set of clusters. Each centroid is thereafter set to the arithmetic mean of the cluster it defines. The process of classification and centroid adjustment is repeated until the values of the centroids stabilize. The final centroids will be used to produce the final classification/clustering of the input data, effectively turning the set of initially anonymous data points into a set of data points, each with a class identity.
What are the basic steps for K-means clustering?
- Step 1: Choose the number of clusters k.
- Step 2: Select k random points from the data as centroids.
- Step 3: Assign all the points to the closest cluster centroid.
- Step 4: Re-compute the centroids of newly formed clusters.
- Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4.
Use-Cases in the Security Domain
Malware detection refers to the process of detecting the presence of malware on a host system or of distinguishing whether a specific program is malicious or benign. Malware detection technique plays vital role in detecting malware attack that can give high impact towards the cyber world. By using clustering, unsupervised machine learning is able to detect malware attack by identifying the behavior of the malware.
Clustering detection model by using K-Means clustering approach to detect malware behavior of data based on the features of the malware. Clustering techniques that use unsupervised algorithm in machine learning plays an important role in grouping similar malware characteristics by studying the behavior of the malware which results in, model is capable to cluster normal and suspicious data into two separate groups with high detection rate which is more than 90 percent accuracy.
Identifying crime localities
With data related to crimes available in specific localities in a city, the category of crime, the area of the crime, and the association between the two can give quality insight into crime-prone areas within a city or a locality.
Insurance fraud detection
Machine Learning has a critical role to play in fraud detection and has numerous applications in automobile, healthcare, and insurance fraud detection. Utilizing past historical data on fraudulent claims, it is possible to isolate new claims based on its proximity to clusters that indicate fraudulent patterns. Since insurance fraud can potentially have a multi-million dollar impact on a company, the ability to detect frauds is crucial.
Cyber-profiling is the process of collecting data from individuals and groups to identify significant co-relations. The idea of cyber profiling is derived from criminal profiles, which provide information on the investigation division to classify the types of criminals who were at the crime scene.
Call record detail analysis
A call detail record (cdr) is the information captured by telecom companies during the call, sms, and internet activity of a customer. This information provides greater insights about the customer’s needs when used with customer demographics. We can cluster customer activities for 24 hours by using the unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm. It is used to understand segments of customers with respect to their usage by hours.
Automatic clustering of it alerts
Large enterprise use infrastructure technology components such as network, storage, or database generate large volumes of alert messages. Because alert messages potentially point to operational issues, they must be manually screened for prioritization for downstream processes. Clustering of data can provide insight into categories of alerts and mean time to repair, and help in failure predictions.
Crime document classification
Cluster documents in multiple categories based on tags, topics, and the content of the document. This is a very standard classification problem and k-means is a highly suitable algorithm for this purpose. The initial processing of the documents is needed to represent each document as a vector and uses term frequency to identify commonly used terms that help classify the document. The document vectors are then clustered to help identify similarity in document groups.
These were few use cases but the list goes on be it in Security Domain or any other, K-means is very effective as well as easy way of Clustering in Machine Learning.